Posted by Ari Zells on Feb 26, 2012
The term Judaism (derived from the greek hebraïsmós , in Hebrew : יהדות [?] ) refers to both a religion monotheistic is a cultural tradition, both within communities spread ethnic Jewish present around the world.
Like religion , today’s Jews, also known as Rabbinic Judaism, is the evolution of religion biblical fruit, according to tradition, the covenant ( b and rit ) of God , indicated by the name of Yahweh , and the Jewish people.
With the first Jew in history Avraham , the first of the Jewish Patriarchs , emerged as religion strictly monotheistic , the first of its kind to be documented in the territory of the populations Canaanite .
In a general way, we can say that Judaism has spread around the world even after the dispersion of Jews from the age of the ‘ Roman Empire ( diaspora ).  
Along with Christianity and all ‘ Islam , Judaism is classified as an Abrahamic religion , as Abraham is, for the faithful of the three faiths, a common patriarch.
To learn more, see Voice Bible .
The sacred text par excellence, but not the only one in the Jewish religion, is the Torah , in Hebrew , means “teaching”, “law”, and contains, according to tradition, the instructions given by Yahweh to the people of Israel on Mount Sinai forty-nine days after the escape from Egypt. It contains the description of the history of mankind from creation until the arrival of Jews in the Land of Israel . The Jewish canon of Scripture was defined in the first century AD At the heart of the Jewish faith, is the Shema contained in Deuteronomy , 04.06 (“Hear O Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One …”).
The monotheistic faith is centered on the assertion that offers itself in Exodus 3.14: I am the Essence of Being a Who I Am Who I will be . If we stick to the letter to the biblical text , this claim (in Hebrew Ehyeh Asher Ehyeh ) is in fact untranslatable , since you should have a tense able to make, simultaneously, the present, past and future. According to the Jewish faith, God is one who, while not changing its essence, follows the Jewish people in all its historical vicissitudes. In this sense, God is linked with him in the past, present and future . 
The main consequence of this awareness is monotheistic, first, the idea of God’s lordship over the world and history, even if it does not mean that the mundane reality does not enjoy an autonomy expressed by free will , indeed, the principle same understanding of life on earth as a test to pass to enter eternal life is based on free will: the man is faced with the choice between good and evil, between doing and not doing , and its mission is to freely choose the good, namely the Torah and its precepts. In Judaism, Yahweh is seen as the one who rules and who is in the highest heavens while reigning on earth, because he is “transcendent” and “immanent”, “high” and always “present” in the life of man : The Jewish scholars teach that “God created the world to have a place in which to live down.”
The man can not perceive with the senses or intellectually the true essence of divinity, as is said in Exodus 33:20 “A man can not see my ‘face’ and stay alive”, is knowable God above all from his works and its attributes, its middot .
From this moral doctrine, Judaism has developed the idea of creation as san antonio apartments creatio ex nihilo (creation from nothing), that the idea of a linear development of history and not properly considering the cyclical cyclical order, stability, but also change even within the boundaries established by, be they historical, spiritual or Nature. Perceived by the men in his limited reserve to which the sanctity of the precepts of God’s covenant and thus entering the spiritual world, time is considered as the sum of those unique opportunities offered to man to express his freedom in the creation .
Another feature of Judaism is the idea of a relationship with God, who has nothing of the ascetic. This link is established in the fellowship of the covenant, in which the creator and the creature remain separated, their identities. It is exactly the theological category of the covenant to be constitutive of Judaism: it represents the mutual commitment, for which the election and the benevolence of God must be, by Israel, the observance of the 613 mitzvot , the commandments that embrace every aspect of human life.
While ensuring the realm of Torah on every aspect of human life, Judaism’s theocracy is combined with a particular conception of autonomy creature that gives man the power to act on the set, following the rules, to complete the work Lord of the divine and to coexist with the free agency of man that conforms to the divine will expressed in the Torah oral and written, then the choice of the property.
Moses and the prophets
In elaborating theological Judaism, is of considerable importance to the role that is attributed to Moses , who is considered the greatest of prophets , not because his speculation about God is greater than that of Isaiah or Ezekiel , but because it is was the only man to break down, in the words of the Rambam ( Moses Maimonides ), all barriers to contemplate http://www.insuranceforcriticalillness.co.uk/ the vision of the Holy Blessed, all except one of the human intellect is unable to conceive of God precisely through thinking (cf. . Moses Maimonides, “The Eight Chapters, The ethical doctrine” chap. VII, and Moshe Chaim Luzzatto , “The article on the principles” chap. VII). In other words, according to tradition, rabbinic Moses was the only man to reach the maximum degree of the prophetic spirit, and is what is its size. When Moses was given the Torah and he was given the task of leading the Jewish people through the desert , until in Eretz Israel : the promised land. Only a man of such high virtues could be entrusted with such a great task.
Of course, also play a major role in the other prophets , who recall the essentials and the ultimate goal of the Torah , as well as rabbis and Jewish teachers with comments that the canonical Hebrew deepen the meaning of moral precepts contained in the Torah .
The value attributed to the divine word and the element eschatological exerts a great influence on early Christianity (just think of the prologue of John’s gospel that from this derives its theological elaboration on the logos ), but also speculation on the first Jewish-Hellenistic age ( Philo of Alexandria , which is the first thinker to groped a reconciliation between the Greek philosophical categories and the Jewish faith). The development of ‘ apocalyptic Jewish and Christian influence is strongly affected, in particular, the Book of Daniel .
To learn more, see the entry Judaism .
The history of Judaism begins with the exile in Babylon ( 587 BC ), which puts an end to the kingdom of Judah , the last offshoot of the Kingdom of Israel . The deportation identifies essentially the rest of Israel , that is, those faithful to the original religion and deportees who return later to Palestine to establish a new Jewish state. This term is used only once in the New Testament (Gal 1,13-14). The Jews of Palestine and those who live far away (in Alexandria , Babylonia, etc..) form a religious community united by faith, monotheistic , the study of the Law ( Torah ) and the Messianic hope. Some time after his return from exile, the religious activity resumes in the temple of Jerusalem , Palestinian Judaism, but gives new institutions: the council and the synagogue , where the scribes and lawyers are increasingly important.
In the first century , Judaism was already a world like that polymorph know that Jesus, fragmented into several streams: Pharisees , Sadducees , Essenes , Zealots , baptists , Herodians , Samaritans , therapists . The Christianity was born within this complex multiplicity. After the destruction of the temple ( 70 ), the only ones there were the Pharisees, the only group that had remained faithful to the tradition of the masters. One of these Jochanan Ben Zakkai , founded the academy in Yavneh and reorganized Judaism, allowing him to survive the catastrophe of 70 .
In this area develops the rabbinical tradition , which distinguishes the Torah written, codified in the apartment marketing Pentateuch , the Torah, Oral, codified in the Mishna and the Talmud , both considered to be of divine origin, as revealed simultaneously to Moses on Mount Sinai . To live according to the Torah , a jew is required to observe the precepts that apply to your condition (no one is obliged to observe all 613 commandments, because some unique to the priests, others only the king, and so on). Among these, the circumcision , the celebration of the Sabbath, and ‘ compliance with the dietary prohibitions are, today as yesterday, the precepts of the Jewish religion. The Torah explains that these precepts are imposed on the Jew as a test: if he takes over and the precepts, will get an eternal reward infinitely superior to his merits.
Under the impetus of the movement of emancipation, many Jews have abandoned the practice of rituals, but they continue to consider Judaism a common intellectual and cultural heritage. The twentieth century marks the awakening of the lay-political movements and the assimilation of Judaism to a national entity on the one hand and a new finding of compliance with the other precepts, the meeting of these two strong souls gave life to debates on new methods of analysis and solution of rabbinical disputations.
During the rabbinic Judaism becomes the fundamental problem is to preserve their identity in a sometimes hostile world that sees it as a preliminary to the understanding of Christian doctrine.
The Jewish teachers are concerned to preserve and modernize the Torah Oral (interpretation of the Pentateuch of the first and second century AD), regarded as one with the writing that could not exist otherwise; exegetical application is already in the writing of the Mishna and the Talmud (Babylonian and Jerusalem). Also during this period sees the writing of the jiu jitsu gainesville first midrashim that, as the Mishna , but above all as the Talmud , contain parts of halakhah and parts of the Haggadah that traditional exegesis and homiletics , which is expressed by means of stories, based on the biblical text , which are dedicated to transmit the meanings of the Torah to the people of Israel. They will be continuity of teaching and learning all subsequent masters according to the value of tradition, always alive and never died.
Philosophy and mysticism
To learn more, see the entries Chassidut , Jewish Philosophy , Kabbalah and Torah Celeste .
Judaism has also produced a philosophy proper, which according to some academics through the influence of Stoic , Platonic and Aristotelian , the latter mediated by thinkers Muslims ( Avicenna and Averroes in particular), the link is still identified with Aristotle by Maimonides, and Hillel of Verona in many ways recalls Thomas Aquinas . Regarding the contribution of philosophy, you remember, in the medieval Jewish figures of Yehudah HaLevi , Moses Maimonides and Hillel of Verona. Judaism Sephardic stands out for its philosophical and theological studies in nature, while the Jewish Ashkenazi is characterized by an increased focus on the mystical and Talmudic studies, which will result in the Hasidic movement of ‘ Eastern Europe .
Jewish mysticism is rooted in the prophetic and, especially, in the interpretations of Ma’aseh Merkava (l ‘”work of the chariot”) which opens the book of Ezekiel . The studies give life to the mystical kabbalah for which in the thirteenth century in Provence is reminiscent of the Ramban, Abraham Abulafia and, in the sixteenth century , in the Safed school teacher Isaac Luria .
In modern times among academics is Gershom Scholem , who, among other things, noted the influence of the thought of John Scotus Erigena on medieval Jewish mysticism.
The illusion of pseudomessianica sabbatianismo had its catastrophic consequences, then the birth of the movement of Hasidic Polish (second half of the eighteenth century ) which is one of the most significant moments in the development of Jewish mysticism, mysticism that has much influenced the ascetic Christian doctrine. Interestingly, the constant tension within Judaism, between mysticism and philosophy , since, despite the different perspective, the underlying problems are common: the relationship between creator and creature, the link between finite and infinite, the reality of the good and evil.
In modern times, Moses Mendelssohn is the philosopher who seeks to reconcile the Haskalah or Jewish Enlightenment with the same modern West, showing how Judaism is harmonized with the demands of reason. Roads have similar path later, Hermann Cohen , Franz Rosenzweig and Martin Buber .
There are four main streams of Judaism:
Orthodox Judaism : it recognizes the Jewish tradition of Torah, even according to the ‘ Halacha of the fundamental text of the Shulchan Aruch , the exegesis of the latter and of itself and, without contradicting the fundamentals, even in the adaptation to changing social realities. Congregations are special groups within the Orthodox movement Hasidic , which invoke the teachings of the Baal Shem Tov , a scholar of the late eighteenth century who theorized Jewish ethics as a welcome acceptance of the mitzvot, instead of seeing the only aspect of obligation . Orthodox Judaism, not considering that respect dell’Halakhah other streams of Judaism, does not accept the conversions that are not made within the Orthodox and therefore not all those in other groups of Jews are Jews consider such an orthodox view . In Orthodox environment that is considered a point of fundamental importance to the Jewish identity, marriages and burials.
Reform Judaism : born in Germany in the nineteenth century , it soon spread in the United States . Reform Judaism seeks to reduce and relativize the imposing complex of the mitzvot of the Torah , the fact that separate the people of Israel from the rest of the world. In the time it was divided into numerous branches, more or less adherent to Jewish traditions, until, in extreme cases, to abandon the Sabbath and the acceptance of a Messiah (anointed one), while maintaining the expectation of a future messiah. A derivation from the Reform movement is the ‘ secular humanistic Judaism .
Conservative Judaism , also known as the Masoretic , was born in the twentieth century in the USA, as a reformed branch of Judaism. Confirmation of the ethical-philosophical mitzvot , determining the obligation to comply, however, has changed over the orthodox important points, especially the liturgical tradition – the most striking of which is the common prayer between men and women.
Reconstructionist Judaism : Founded in the United States by Rabbi conservative Mordecai Kaplan and Rabbi Ira Eisenstein is characterized by a strong resemblance to the ‘ reformed Judaism , from which however it differs in a more traditional account of the appearance.
Orthodox Judaism has a substantial majority in Israel and the Diaspora in countries other than the United States of America . Here the majority is split between conservative and reformed, as the Orthodox minority. The U.S. is also the only country with a significant number of Reconstructionists. Italy is a country currently Modern Orthodox Jewish community that the Italian is credited as orthodox in the modern sense, there are small groups that refer to other streams of Judaism.
The Jewish religious and philosophical thought went into great excitement by the birth of Zionism , and especially after the founding in 1948 , the State of Israel .
Among the most important cultural and religious objects in the Jewish religion are:
Menorah , candelabrum ‘seven-branched’, there existed only one of pure gold and was located in the Temple of Jerusalem, Jewish symbol and current state of Israel in almost all the Jewish homes it is a reproduction. When there was still the temple was turned on a light day (started a week from Sunday) until you get to seven on Shabbat.
Mezuzzah , parchment affixed (inside a small container) to the doorposts and containing two pieces of the Shema (basic prayer of Judaism, to be recited every day, morning and evening), the ones containing the precept of Mezuzzah.
Tefillin , known as phylacteries, are black leather boxes worn on the arm and forehead by means of leather straps. They contain four pieces of parchment with Torah mentioning this precept.
Yarmulke , the cap worn by Jewish males.
Talled , shawl white fabric often with bands, commonly of a dark color, characterized by four long fraying of fabric at the ends, called tzitzit . The large version (talit gadol) is worn during morning prayer and Yom Kippur throughout the long cycle of prayers, the small (talit Katan) is worn daily.
Hanukkiah , plural hanukkioth , candlestick ‘nine arms’ used to light candles during the celebration of the feast of Hanukkah ( Festival of Lights ) in commemoration of the rededication of the Temple after the Maccabean war whose casus belli was the sacrifice of a pig in the temple by a Hellenistic priest.
Magen David (Shield of David), this six-pointed star in the flag of the State of Israel together with bands of blue talled , has become the symbol of Zionism since the first congress at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries .
BS “D בס”ד in Hebrew, is a typical, traditional acronym that can be easily found in many Hebrew documents, as well as in many modern web pages that deal with Judaism. Takes the place of the phrase, written in Aramaic, b’siyata de’shemaya , which literally means “with God’s help” and is written at the top of the documents, to remind the writer and the reader that, without the ‘ Lord’s help, it is impossible for man to achieve something that inherently possesses the eternal values that He has revealed to us.
Customs and Traditions
To learn more, see the entry Casherut .
The casherut is a set of dietary rules prescribed by the Torah . They are a very complex body of regulations, which form the foundation Power Jew at home and outside.
The word kosher means “fit” and is about the purity of food: in fact, the Torah also distinguishes between clean beasts and unclean animals, those permitted and those prohibited. Many Jews use the word Taref to indicate the opposite to what is allowed feeding kosher.
The lists of animals, which are permitted to eat in the Bible, chapter 11 of Leviticus , and some are repeated in chapter 14 of Deuteronomy .
We allow ruminant quadrupeds with hooves as bipartite, for example, cow, sheep, goat and deer, but not pig, camel, horse or rabbit is a list of forbidden birds, from which all others are allowed, that contains all the raptors and nocturnal birds. Except for some cases, you can eat fish with scales and fins: they are therefore excluded shellfish (octopus, shellfish, crabs, etc..), As well as eels, sharks and some other fish to which the scales are thought to have no complete .
Some kinds of locusts are allowed to Sephardic Jews living in Arab countries, but not to both Sephardic and Ashkenazi residents in the West because of the prohibition against eating anything that might arouse disgust (also with regard to local customs). The animals sheep, cattle, goats and poultry are not considered kosher if permits are not killed by the method known as shechitàh . The shochet , who run the shechitàh must have an appropriate license eligibility: severed with a knife the trachea and ‘ esophagus of the animal, and in doing so severs the arteries causing a major loss of consciousness almost instantly. The remaining blood is removed from the meat through a process of washing, salting and rinsing or by roasting: For centuries the process of washing, rinsing and salting of the meat was the prerogative of women at home, but is now practiced mainly by the butcher kosher supplier.
A strictly kosher home will have at least two services tools for the preparation and consumption of food, the service is a “beef” (meaning no meat for the fish), for use with the meat and its derivatives, the other is “dairy”, which is used with dairy products, since it is forbidden to mix milk and meat according to the Torah. It is forbidden to mix meat and fish, but this has restrictions prohibiting minors and therefore does not imply the use of services of separate dishes, but only the prohibition of ingesting meat and fish together and use for one of the other dirty dishes food.
Graves in a Jewish cemetery
According to the Jewish religion all the bodies of dead people are buried in the earth according to rabbinic halakhic requirements, it is admitted that a Kohen would be forced to bury a dead man if there is no other person present to do the same and must be buried in a place intended for it. In Talmud , treated Sotah , are also specified some of the rules necessary for the procedure required for a body in case it is not found in a place suited to the burial also specifying the cases in which they are separate bones do not constitute more then the body in its entirety . It is believed that in ‘ messianic was the first individuals to revive with the return of ‘ soul in the body are those buried in the land of Israel.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This entry on the topic Judaism is only a sketch .
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Hasidic leaders at a meeting in Jerusalem
Hasidism is a movement of ‘ Judaism founded by Israel ben Eliezer , better known as the Baal Shem Tov .
The beginning of the eighteenth century was for the Jewish people, especially in the lands of the North-East of ‘ Europe, a particularly difficult period. The Counter , triumphantly winning elsewhere, had not been metabolized by the populations Polish and Russian . Moreover, the tragic conclusion of the story of the false messiah Sabbatai Zevi had cast into the deepest despair a bit ‘all over Israel , but especially those remote regions, high Jewish concentration.
The reaction to these events was at first an increase in the penalty doctrine, which became particularly heavy. On the other hand, the Jewish population was a fraction of the population, general and Judaism, although far from being a majority or even acknowledged, was an important reality that is self-supported, both religious, both economically . The presence of small and very small towns, sometimes exclusively Jewish, meant that there were figures, we would now call preachers , who performed the duties of ministers and itinerant teachers. These figures have important functions not only religious, and also held various functions, such as the doctor , the ritual slaughterer , the circumciser and more. Nell’opprimente climate of the time these itinerant ministers had to be aware of the malaise that snaked in Jewish communities. The Baal Shem Tov was one of them, and gave an original response to the malaise of the times.
Among the Lithuanians and those known as mitnagdim , the Rabbis protested that the first Hasidic rabbis were charged to execute the law of the Torah in part too mechanically. In contrast, they contrasted the ease in spreading the secrets of the Torah which they say should have been a few legacy: they relied on the principle of revelation of the mysteries only the approach of ‘ messianic era and completely only when it had fully manifested. Following the founding of the Lubavitch movement by the direct successors of the first figure Alter Rebbe Besht Shneur Zalman of Liadi who managed to create harmony between the parties and founded what the piety and brotherly love which enabled the comparison and the establishment of a real union between the religious Jews who wanted to talk to either join the new movement Lubavitcher who was also called Chabad : This name is derived from three Hebrew words Khokhmah, Binah and Daat, clearly translated with the meanings of wisdom, intelligence and knowledge, these , also known as the three Sefirot Keter higher immediately following, were the expression of the new form of religion but the original founding and dialogue that characterized the spiritual and mystical nature of the aforementioned Master and mediation with the intellectual and religious culture especially prevalent in Lithuanian masters of the time.
Hasidism is also the meeting of spirit and spiritual religious fervor, also characterized by kavanah expressed joy and holiness of the dances and songs, with the methodical and rigorous study. These aspects, the instant of joy, the deep study and that of rigor, are experienced in a complete and unified according to that simplicity which had characterized the Besht, and what is happening in daily life made long pilgrimages in order to group or support the largest number of Jews, both in studying and teaching, where things were always seemingly insurmountable lead in a good opportunity to make that experience an oral tradition whose teaching radiated faith and union with God in the knowledge of the continued support providential and messianic jew who lived in the heart of every time and always.
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Hebrew name יום הכיפורים
Meaning Day of Repentance
Beginning 10 of Tishri
End 10 of Tishri
Liturgical objects Shofar
Yom Kippur ( יום כפור Yom Kippur , Day of Atonement) is the Jewish religious holiday that celebrates the day of ‘atonement. In the Torah is called Yom haKippurim ( Hebrew , “Day of atonement”). It is one of the so-called Yamim Noraim ( Hebrew , literally “terrible days”, more properly, “Days of awe”). The Yamim Noraim ranging from Rosh Hashanah to Yom Kippur, which are respectively the first two days and the last day of the Ten Days of Repentance .
In the Jewish calendar, Yom Kippur begins at sunset of the tenth day of the Hebrew month of Tishri (which falls between September and October of the Gregorian calendar ), and continues until the first star of the next night. It can then take 25-26 hours.
Yom Kippur will fall over the next year of the Gregorian calendar in the following days  : property management raleigh nc
Warning: the holiday begins at sundown the day before.
The ritual of Yom Kippur is described four times in the sixteenth chapter of Leviticus (see Exodus 30, 10, Leviticus 23, 27-31 and 25, 9, Numbers 29:7-11). During fasting is forbidden to eat and drink as well as days of “Moed,” apply the same requirements for the Saturday about the job and other prohibited activities.
In Jewish thought
Yom Kippur is the Jewish day of repentance, is considered the holiest Jewish day of the year and solemn. The central theme is atonement of sins and reconciliation. It is forbidden to eat, drink, washing, cosmetics, wearing leather shoes and have sex. Fasting – total abstinence from food and drink – begins a few moments before sundown (called tosefet Yom Kippur – Yom Kippur in addition – the addition of a small part of the day before the fasting is prescribed by the Halakha ), and ends after sunset Next, the appearance of the first stars. Sick people consult competent rabbinic authority in advance to see if their status exempting them from fasting.
The service begins with the prayer of Kol Nidre , which must be recited before sunset. Kol Nidre (word Aramaic meaning “all pledges”) is the annulment of all vows made in the course of the year. According to The Jewish Encyclopedia , the text of the prayer reads: “All vows, commitments, oaths and curses that are called ‘konam’, ‘Konas’, or by any other name, we might have uttered or for which we be committed shall be deleted from this day of repentance until the next (whose arrival is awaited with joy), we will regret. ”
Yom Kippur completes the penitential period of ten days began with the New Year of Rosh Hashanah . Although the prayers with which he asks forgiveness are recommended throughout the year, become particularly felt on this day.
The morning prayer is preceded by litanies and some requests for forgiveness called selihot ; in the Yom Kippur they are added in abundance in the liturgy.
According to Moses Maimonides “It all depends on what a man deserves to have it deleted the demerits that weigh on his behalf”, so it is desirable to multiply good deeds before the final count made the Day of Atonement (ib. iii. 4) . Those whom God deemed worthy will enter in the Book of Life, the prayer reads: “We go into the Book of Life.” Also stated in the wish “May you be in writing (in the Book of Life) for a happy year.” In written correspondence between New Year and the Day of Atonement, the writer concludes, usually, by wishing the sender that God approves of his desire for happiness. In late Judaism some peculiarities of the New Year’s Day was transferred to the Day of Atonement.
The Day of Atonement survived the abandonment of the sacrificial practices of the year 70 CE. “Though no sacrifices be offered, the day will maintain its own effect of expiation” ( Midrash Sifra , Emor, xiv.). Jewish texts teach that in this day is not allowed to be carried out other activities that is not repentance. Repentance is the indispensable condition for all the various meanings of the atonement. The confession of the penitent is a necessary condition for atonement. “The Day of Atonement absolves from sins before God, but not in front of the victim until he is forgiven by the very explicit” (Talmud Yoma viii. 9). It is customary to end any dispute or litigation in the wake of days of fasting. Even the souls of the dead are included in the community of forgiven on the Day of Atonement. It’s a costume for children who have lost their parents to receive a publicly mention the synagogue, and to provide charitable gifts to their souls.
Contrary to popular belief, Yom Kippur is not a sad day. The Jews Sephardim , or Jews of Spanish origin, Portuguese or North African holiday is called the “Black Fast”. Consequently, many Jews have the custom of wearing only white clothes to symbolize the purity of their souls.
For evening prayers is wearing a Talled (a rectangular prayer shawl), and this is the only evening service of the year when this happens. Ne’ilah is a special service held only on Yom Kippur, and the closes. Yom Kippur ends with the sound of the shofar , which concludes the celebration. Is always observed a day of holiday, both inside and outside the boundaries of the land of Israel .
The service begins at the synagogue on Christmas Eve with the Kol Nidre . The devotions are continuous throughout the day from morning to night. Much importance is given to the liturgical song which tells the ceremonial of the temple.
According to the Talmud, God opens three books on the first day of the year, Rosh Hashana, for an absolute evil, the other for the absolute good, and the third for the large intermediate class. The fate of the good and absolute evil is determined at that time, the fate of the intermediate class is suspended until Yom Kippur, when the fate of each is decided. The liturgical music piece Unetanneh Tokef says:
God King, who sits on a throne of mercy to condemn the world, at the same time Judge, Pleader, Expert Witness, open the Book of Signatures. It reads that should be the signatures of every man. The great trumpet is sounded, a voice is heard small, and settled, the angels tremble, saying, “This is the day of judgment” because the ministers of God are not pure before Him as a shepherd leads his flock, causing pass under his rod, so does God go all flesh before Him, to establish the limits of life of every creature and to define its destiny. New Year’s Day the decree is drawn up, the day of repentance is sealed, who shall live and who shall die …. But repentance, prayer and charity can avoid the cruel decree. ”
The “Crown of Majesty” by Ibn Gvirol is added to the Sephardic liturgy in the evening service, and is also read in some Italian and Ashkenazi synagogues. At the center of the ancient liturgy is the confession of sins. “Because we are not so presumptuous as to tell you that we are right and we have no sin, but, in reality, we have sinned … it is Your will that I sin no further, I like to wash my sins past, according to Thy goodness, but not with harsh punishment. ”
The traditional melodies with their tone of lament (Ashkenazi tradition) give expression to the anguish and uncertainty of the individual against fate and the lament of a people for the lost glories. On the day of atonement the observant jew forget your social life and its needs and, excluding the hatred, dislike and all ignoble thoughts, seeks to deal only with spiritual things. The Jewish prayer books point out that if the public acts of contrition are required, the corrective action more effective is determined by the biblical prophets, who teach that the true fast that God rejoices is the spirit of devotion, kindness and penance.
The austere character imparted to the ceremony from the time of its establishment was kept up to date. Even if other things have become obsolete, the grip on the conscience of every jew is so strong that few, unless they have severed all ties with Judaism, avoid observing the day of atonement, and refraining from participating in daily work functions.
Until the destruction of the Second Temple (70 AD), one of the most important ceremonies was the offer of “scapegoat”, or ” scapegoat “(Leviticus 16:8-10) that every year, Yom Kippur, was sent to Azazel . Azazel is an obscure word that is not found anywhere else in the Hebrew Bible . The word may derive from 2 words, and z , which means goat , and azel , which means starting . The Mishnah (Yoma Chap. 6) and the Talmud (Yoma, pages 66-67) describe in detail the transport of the goat out of the Temple and Jerusalem, which led into the wilderness the sins of the Jewish people. The Talmud and Rashi , the preeminent Torah commentator, explains explicitly that Azazel is the name of a precipice where the sacrificial goat was precipitated. Others believe the name of an evil spirit, a spirit with this name is mentioned in the apocryphal book of Enoch , and in later Jewish literature. Following this interpretation, the idea that the ceremony would seem to put off the evil spirits in the sins which they had originally. It was noted that similar rites of expiation had prevailed among the heathen nations.
The modern critics of the Bible, which they attribute these passages to the Priestly Code , and at a later date Exile, are inclined to believe that the sending of the goat for Azazel is an adaptation of an existing ceremony. Some more conservative biblical scholars have noted that the place where the goat was brought was a “wild place” outside the city, and beyond that there was a place called Azazel. Their view is that the “goat of departure” was simply “let go”. These assumptions are in clear contradiction with the Jewish tradition.
Posted by Ari Zells on Nov 24, 2013
Vancouver Video Productions created by Direct Impact Media – http://www.directimpactmedia.ca. Earlier this year we produced an opening video for CIJA’s Western Regional Conference. CIJA was looking for an exciting way to open their event and provide a short introduction to the themes of the conference. The treatment included selecting and treating appropriate imagery depicting the various themes and messages combined with animated text. The photos and text were brought to life with a powerful yet stately musical track. This was an effective way of creating a company video within a very tight budget while achieving the client’s objectives.
For more video productions created by Direct Impact Media, please visit our video gallery on our website at http://www.directimpactmedia.ca/gallery/video-gallery/
Duration : 0:0:59
Posted by Ari Zells on Nov 24, 2013
One of the best ways to embrace a Canadian Winter is to head straight into the thick of it in Quebec City! Kristen Sarah owner of hopscotchtheglobe.com takes us though her favourite things about visiting Quebec City in the winter months, including spending time at Winter Carnival and a host of other adventurous activities.
Find out more at http://www.travelandescape.ca/escapes/warm-up-to-winter/
Follow Kristen’s adventures at http://www.hopscotchtheglobe.com
To book great getaways visit http://www.jaunt.ca/winter
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